study hard and move forward every day 好好学习，天天向上
Mao Zedong wrote to honor an 8-year-old boy, Chen Yongkang, who helped police catch a spy in Suzhou, in 1951. Mao asked all kids to study hard to do a better job for the country. Banners with this slogan could be seen in almost every classroom。
food coupon 粮票
This allowed people to get certain food supplies under the planned economy. Low agricultural production meant insufficient food supplies and a quota system and the coupons were a means of distribution. The quota system lasted to the early 90s. The tickets are now the stuff of collectors。
quotations from Chairman Mao 毛主席语录
Practically everyone has heard of the Little Red Book. This collection of quotations from Mao Zedong's speeches and writings was published from 1964 until about 1976. People had to remember lines and use them to guide their thoughts. The title Little Red Book was coined by Westerners because of the red cover and pocket-book size.
几乎所有人都听说过《红宝书》。1964年至1976年，人们从毛泽东的演讲和著作中摘选部分内容制成语录并出版发行。人们被要求背诵其中的语句，并以此来指导他们的思想。西方人根据该书红色的书皮和口袋书的大小将其命名为 "Little Red Book"。
Red Guard 红卫兵
Basically middle-school and college students during the "Cultural Revolution" that Chairman Mao allowed to act as revolutionaries. In primary schools, Little Red Guards replaced the Young Pioneers. The "Gang of Four" used Red Guards to challenge authority. They were a key cause of social disorder, but their reign ended in 1978.
educated youth 知青
From the mid-1960s to the late-1970s, about 17 million urban middle school grads answered Mao's call and flocked to the countryside. They were encouraged to pay respect to and learn from the peasants. By 1979, most educated youth were heading back to the cities but they had a hard time adapting to the changed world.
pull string 走后门
Literally, "entering through the back door". It originated under the planned economy when people used connections to get goods from the back door of a state-owned shop. This string-pulling reached a sort of climax in the late 1970s when the "educated youth" tried everything possible to get back to the cities.
"走后门"可直译为"entering through the back door"。该词源自计划经济下人们利用自己的关系从国营商店的后门获取商品这一行为。这种现象在70年代末知青绞尽脑汁返回城市时达到了高潮。
“老外”直译就是"old foreigner"。“老外”这一新词出现在70年代末，改革开放后，大批外国人涌入中国。起初，该词含有一种戏弄的口气。如今，该词多用为一种友好的昵称。比如大山这种在中国居住、工作或学习时间较久，精通中国文化的外国人常被称作an old China hand（中国通）。
iron rice bowl 铁饭碗
A secure, lifetime job assigned by the government. Where was no fear of losing the job. By the 1980s, with the new market economy, there was a competitive model of employment. And the cherished iron rice bowl was gone after more than 30 years.
all-round good student 三好学生
Literally, "thrice-good", given to students who were virtuous, talented, and good at P.E.; first used in the 1950s by Mao to encourage young people to keep fit, study well, and work hard.
For the market economy, a dual-pricing system was tried in 1979. The price of certain goods was fixed and they were distributed instead of sold. If a factory exceeded its quota, it could sell the surplus at a higher price. People close to government or factory officials got the low-priced goods and sold them at a higher price. This profiteering was outlawed in 1987.