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尽管有大量证据支持,但是实际测试并不是常用的学习策略。不过,有一种熟悉的学习方法带来的益处和实际测试相近:使用记忆卡片。而且现在记忆卡片可以变得数字化了。分散式学习和实际测试都被作者们评为“高实用性”的学习技巧。 (来源:英语麦当劳 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

The Rest

其他学习技巧

The remainder of the techniques evaluated by Dunlosky and his colleagues fell into the middle ground — not useless, but not especially effective either. These include:

Dunlosky和他的同事们评估的其他技巧都处于中间地带——虽然不是完全没用,但是也没有多大的效率。这些技巧有:

Mental imagery, or coming up with pictures that help you remember text (which is time-consuming and only works with text that lends itself to images);

心理意象,即看图片记文字(很耗时间,而且只对能联想得到图片的文字有用);

Elaborative interrogation, or asking yourself “why” as you read (which is kind of annoying, like having a 4-year-old tugging at your sleeve);

学习精细化整合,即边读边问自己问为什么(有点烦人,就好像四岁小孩一直拉着你的袖子问问题一样);

Self-explanation, or forcing yourself to explain the text in detail instead of passively reading it over (its effectiveness depends on how complete and accurate your explanations are);

自我解释,即强迫自己解释文中出现的细节内容,而不是之后再被动地重新阅读(这种方法是否有效取决于你的解释是否完整精确);

Interleaved practice, or mixing up different types of problems (there is not much evidence to show that this is helpful, outside of learning motor tasks);

交叉实践,即把几种不同的问题组合在一起(没有太多证据能说明这种方法有效,除非是学习开车);

And lastly the keyword mnemonic, or associating new vocabulary words, usually in a foreign language, with an English word that sounds similar — so, for example, learning the French word for key, la clef, by imagining a key on top of a cliff (which is a lot of work to remember a single word).

最后是关键词助记,即把新的词汇(通常是一门外语)与英语读音相近的词联系在一起,举例来说,学习法语词表示“钥匙”的单词 la clef 的时候,想想一把钥匙放在悬崖(cliff)上(这样记单词要花很多功夫)。

All these techniques were rated of “moderate” to “low” utility by Dunlosky et al because either there isn’t enough evidence yet to be able to recommend them or they’re just not a very good use of your time. Much better, say the authors, to spread out your learning, ditch your highlighter and get busy with your flash cards.

这些学习技巧都被Dunlosky和其他作者评为“中等实用性”或者“低实用性”,因为其中有些技巧并没有得到足够证据的支持,还有些被评为中和低,单纯是因为它们并不能充分利用时间。作者们表示,分散学习时间、丢掉荧光笔然后去做记忆卡片,你的学习效果会好得多。

 
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