神秘内容 Loading...

词汇概说与实例剖析
(来源:英语博客 http://space.englishcn.com)

初步掌握英语语法之后,考生面临的突出困难就是词汇的用法问题。完形填空、阅读理解、英译汉和写作都和考生的词汇量、词汇知识和用词造句的能力密切相关。因此,词汇是考生复习的重点之一。考生在做本章练习时,要注意以下几点:

  (一)词汇的搭配:动词与介词:accuse sb. of sth.(控告……犯有……); object to sth. or doing sth.;动词与副词:take sth. seriously(重视);形容词与名词:common flo wers;形容词与介词:superior to;介词与形容词或名词所构成的固定搭配:in brief(简短地)、on one"s own(独自地;独立地)、in relation to (关系到);动词与名词构成的成语:take pains(尽力,煞费苦心),等。

  (二)易混淆词的区别:considerate(体贴人的)--considerable(相当大的);respectful(充满敬意的)--respectable (品格高尚的)--respective(各自的)--respected(尊敬的);snatch(攫取)--scratch(抓挠);alone(单独)--lonely(孤独的)等。

  (三)近义词的辨异:damage -- break -- destroy -- ruin; wound -- injure -- hurt; deliberately -- on purpose; comply with -- conform to; agree -- consent -- approve等。

  (四)习语的含义和用法:without question (二话不说地)--beyond question(毫无疑问)--out of the question (不可能); in brief(简短地;总之)--in short (总之); first of all (首先)--above all (最重要的); on the other hand(另一方面)--on the contrary (相反); not to speak of (更不用说)--to say nothing of(更谈不上)--not to mention--let alone--much less等。

  (五)参照注释、深入理解:编者往往通过注释来告诉考生关于题目的症结和解题的思路,同时指出与题目有关的语言知识和注意事项等。因此,考生必须在理解题意的基础上领会注释的要领、反复背记,才能达到由此及彼、由表及里、举一反三、触类旁通的目的。

  例1.测试名词:

  Too much to X?rays can cause skin burns, cancer or other damage to the body.

  A. disclosure B. exhibition C. contact  D. exposure

  应选D. exposure。exposure to sth.暴露于……。

  A man has to make for his old age by putting aside enough money to live on when old.

  A. supply B. assurance C. provision D. adjustment

  应选C. provision。make provision for sth.(为未来的好事或坏事)作好准备。

  注意:为提高试题难度,近年试题经常测试"动词+名词+介词……"的固定惯用搭配。

  When travelling, you are advised to take travellers" checks, which provide a secure to carrying your money in cash.

  A. substitute B. selection C. preference D. alternative

  应选D. alternative。alternative n.二者之中的另一个选择。substitute n.代用品。selection作不可数名词用,意为"选择,挑选,淘汰";作可数名词用,意为"选集,供选择物"。preference宁愿,优先选择。可见,所给的选择项为易混淆词。本题强调相对于携带现金来说的一种可靠选择,故应选D. alternative。

  注意:易混淆词是研究生考试词汇试题选择项中经常遇到的。考生在应试准备时要随手查阅英汉双解辞典,一方面注意词的确切含义,另一方面注意词的搭配关系。

  A of the long report by the budget committee was submitted to the mayor for approval.

  A. shorthand B. scheme C. schedule D. sketch

  应选D. sketch。sketch要点,概要。注意:本题测试形似易混淆词。例2.测试动词:

  As a defence against air?pollution damage, many plants and animals a substance to absorb harmful chemicals.

  A. relieve B. release C. dismiss D. discard

  应选B. release。release(=set free)释放。

  In that country, guests tend to feel they are not highly if the invitation to a dinner party is extended only three or four days before the party date.

  A. admired B. regarded C. expected D. worshipped

  应选B. regarded。regard sb./sth. highly尊重(某人),重视(某事),例如:1) His work is highly regarded by other painters. (其他画家对他的作品评价很高。)2) We all regard him highly.(我们大家都很尊重他。)

  注意:研究生入学试题经常测试动词的一些常用搭配,考生在复习词汇时,除了应注意词的第一词义外,还应背记词的其他词义,其范围应以词汇总表所给词义为准。

  John complained to the book seller that there were several pages in the dictionary.

  A. missing B. losing C. dropping D. leaking

  应选A. missing。missing丢失的,缺少的。

  注意:考生应注意近义词的辨异。

  It is strictly that access to confidential documents is denied to all but a few.

  A. secured B. forbidden C. regulated D. determined

  应选C. regulated。regulated在本题中意为"控制、规定",而不是"调整、调节"。本题译文:严格规定,除少数几人以外,其他所有人都不准接触机密文件。

  注意:从上述两题中可以看出,近两年的完形填空试题对考生近义词的辨别能力提出了很高的要求。因此考生应试准备时既要重视词的确切词义,又要注意其搭配关系。

  To survive in the intense trade competition between countries, we must the qualities and varieties of products we make to the world?market demand.

  A. improve B. enhance C. guarantee D. gear

  应选D. gear。gear...to...使……适合。

  注意:词汇的选择与否既要看搭配关系,又要使所选的词的词义与全句的逻辑思路保持一致。这是一条很重要的解题思路。

  例3.测试短语动词:

  If any man here does not agree with me, he should his own plan for improving the living conditions of these people.

  A. put on B. put out C. put in D. put forward

  应选D. put forward。put forward sth.提出……。

  例4.测试成语:

  The news item about the fire is followed by a detailed report made .

  A. on the spot B. on the site C. on the location D. on the ground

  应选A. on the spot。on the spot当场,在现场。

  The farmers were more anxious for rain than the people in the city because they had more at .

  A.danger B. stake C. loss D. threat

  应选B. stake。at stake利害攸关。本题译文:农民比城里人更渴望下雨,因为他们与雨水更加厉害攸关。

  The supervisor didn"t have time so far to gosintosit , but he gave us an idea about his plan.

  A. at hand  B. in turn C. in conclusion D. at length

  应选D. at length。at length详细地;at hand在手边,在附近;in turn依次,in conclusion最后,总之。

  The pollution question, as well as several other issues, is going to be discussed when the congress is in again next spring.

  A. assembly  B. session C. conference D. convention

  应选B. session。be in session(正在)开会。

  The discussion was so prolonged and exhausting that the speakers stopped for refreshments.

  A. at large B. at intervals C. at ease D. at random

  应选B. at intervals。at intervals不时,时时;at large一般,大体上;逍遥法外;at ease稍息;at random随机地,任意地。

  例5.测试形容词:

  As your instructor advised, you ought to spend your time on something researching into.

  A. precious B. worth C. worthy D. valuable

  应选B. worth。(be) worth doing值得做。如: The book is worth reading.

  We should always keep in mind that decisions often lead to bitter regrets.

  A. urgent B. hasty C. instant D. prompt

  应选B. hasty。hasty匆忙的,仓促的,草率的。

  I never trusted him because I always thought of him as such a character.

  A. gracious B. suspicious C. unique D. particular

  应选B. suspicious。suspicious可疑的。但suspicious作表语时,意为"对……疑心",后常接介词of,如:The dog is suspicious of strangers.那狗对陌生人怀有疑心。

  例6.测试副词:

  While typing, Helen has a habit of stopping to give her long and flowing hair a smooth.

  A. occasionally B. simultaneously C. eventually D. promptly

  应选A. occasionally。occasionally(=now and then, at times)偶然地,间或。

  Your advice would be valuable to him, who is at present at his wit"s end.

  A. exceedingly B. excessively C. extensively D. exclusively

  应选A. exceedingly。exceedingly非常;excessively过分地;extensively广泛地;exclusively只是。at one"s wit"s end智穷计尽。

  Language, culture, and personality may be considered of each other in thought, but they are inseparable in fact.

  A. indistinctly B. separately C. irrelevantly D. independently

  应选D. independently。independently of独立地。本题译文:人们认为语言、文化和个性在思想上是相互独立的,但实际上是不可分割的。

 
神秘内容 Loading...

你可能对下面的文章也感兴趣:

·网络技术与英语教学的挑战.
·英语中的言不由衷
·英语听力技巧学习方法
·英语单词记忆法探究<专稿>
·尽善尽美之Calm your thoughts
·怎样纠正不良的英语阅读习惯
·英语学习中听说读写译技巧突破法
·「美国习惯用语」第十八讲
·About Weather Forecast(选自Three Men in a Boat
·Stonehenge节选(by Bernard Cornwell)

上一篇:练习英语口语DIY  
下一篇:「美国习惯用语」第三十四讲
[推荐] [返回顶部] [打印本页] [关闭窗口]