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考研英语写作破解-应用文写作(小作文)- 摘要
  1.写作攻略 (来源:英语麦当劳-英语学习门户 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

  摘要是对原始文献(或文章)的基本内容进行浓缩并写成语义连贯的短文。它以迅速掌握原文内容梗概为目的,不需加入任何主观评论和解释,但必须简明、确切地表述原文的重要内容。摘要写作要求简明扼要,用词准确。摘要题型写作是难度非常大的一种写作形式。随着考生英语水平的不断提高,这种题型引起考生的普遍重视。写作摘要时应该注意以下几点:

  (1)动笔之前,考生一定要认真仔细地阅读所给原文,力求抓住其大意,掌握原文要点。 如果一遍不能明白,可以多读几次,读的次数越多越容易明白文章大意。

  (2)摘要的长度不应超过原文的三分之一,一般是原文的四分之一或五分之一,考试时应遵守规定的字数限制。

  (3)在做摘要时考生切忌照搬原文,应该用自己的语言来写。一篇摘要应该是语言的再创造,而不是原文词语的简单堆砌。

  (4)摘要应与原文的观点保持一致,为了使摘要条理清晰,无特殊情况应按原文的逻辑顺序排列。

  (5)摘要要做到内容完整,没有大的遗漏,使读者无需查看原文就能够获得原文的主要内容。应重点反映主要观点,删除细节。

  (6)削除例子,简化描述。用简短的语句代替冗长的语句。

  (7)检查与修改时,考生应重点检查是否遗漏了原文的要点或包含了细节。

  另外,写摘要时应该使用简单的衔接词,如but, then, thus, yet, for等等,而不能使用at the same time, on the other hand 等。

  2.必背模版句型

  This paper mainly deals with...

  这篇论文主要是写……

  This article focuses on the topics of (that, having, etc)...

  这篇文章的强调的主题是……

  This essay presents knowledge that...

  这篇短文主要是讲关于……的知识。

  This thesis discusses/analyzes...

  这篇论文讨论/分析了……

  This paper provides an overview of...

  这篇文章综述了……

  This article compares...and summarizes key findings.

  这篇文章比较了……并总结了主要的发现。

  This paper presents up-to-date information on...

  这篇论文介绍了关于……的最新信息。

  This article not only describes...but also suggests...

  这篇文章不仅描述了……而且建议……

  This paper provides a method of ...

  这篇为……提供了方法。

  This paper introduces an applicable procedure to analyze...

  这篇文章介绍一种分析……的可行程序。

  This paper is devoted to examining the role of...

  这篇论文致力于研究……的作用。

  This paper reflects the state of the art in...

  这篇论文展示了……目前的情况。

  This article reviews the techniques used in...

  这篇文章综述了……领域采用的技术。

  The writer of this essay tries to explore...

  本文作者试图探讨……

  The aim/purpose/objective of this paper is to determine...

  本文的目的/目标是为了决定…… 

  3.必背经典范文

  将下面这篇约500词的原文按要求写成约150词的摘要。

  原文

  How New York Became America?s Largest City

  In the 18th century New York was smaller than Philadelphia and Boston.Today it is the largest city in America.How can the change in its size and importance be explained?

  To answer this question we must consider certain facts about geography, history,and economics.Together these three will explain the huge growth of America?s most famous city.

  The map of the Northeast shows that four of the most heavily populated areas in this region are around seaports.At these points materials from across the sea enter the United States, and the product of the land are sent there for export across the sea.

  Economists know that places where transportation lines meet are good places for making raw materials into finished goods.That is why seaports often have cities nearby.But cities like New York needed more than their geographical location in order to become great industrial centers.Their development did not happen simply by chance.

  About 1815,when many Americans from the east coast had already moved toward the west,trade routes from the ports to the central regions of the country began to be a serious problem. The slow wagons of that time,drawn by horses or oxen,were too expensive for moving heavy freight very far. Americans had long admired Europe?s canals.In New York State a canal seemed the best solution to the transportation problem.From the eastern end of Lake Erie all the way across the state to the Hudson River there is a long strip of low land.Here the Erie Canal was constructed. After several years of work it was completed in 1825.

  The canal produced an immediate effect.Freight costs were cut to about one-tenth of what had been.New York City,which had been smaller than Philadelphia and Boston, quickly became the leading city of the coast.In the years that followed, transportation routes on the Great Lakes were joined to routes on the Mississippi River.Then New York City became the end point of a great inland shipping system that extended from the Atlantic Ocean far up the western branches of the Mississippi.

 
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