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 The University as Business 
A number of colleges and universities have announced steep
tuition increases for next year much steeper than the current, 
very low, rate of inflation. They say the increases are needed because
of a loss in value of university endowments' heavily investing in common  1 
stock. I am skeptical. A business firm chooses the price that maximizes 
its net revenues, irrespective fluctuations in income; and increasingly the 2   
outlook of universities in the United States is indistinguishable from those of   3
business firms. The rise in tuitions mayreflect the fact economic uncertainty   4
increases the demand for education. The biggest cost of being 
in the school is foregoing income from a job (this isprimarily a factor in       5
graduate and professional-school tuition); the poor one' s job prospects,   6
the more sense it makes to reallocate time from the job market to education, 
in order to make oneself more marketable. 

The ways which universities make themselves attractive to students               7
 include soft majors, student evaluations of teachers, giving students 
a governance role, and eliminate required courses.                                             8 (来源:英语交友 http://friends.englishcn.com)
Sky-high tuitions have caused universities to regard their students as 
customers. Just as business firms sometimes collude to shorten the           9
rigors of competition, universities collude to minimize the cost to them of the 
athletes whom they recruit in order to stimulate alumni donations, so the best 
athletes now often bypass higher education in order to obtain salaries earlier 
from professional teams. And until they were stopped by the antitrust authorities, 
the Ivy League schools colluded to limit competition for the best students, by 
agreeing not to award scholarships on the basis of merit rather than purely 
of need-just like business firms agreeing not to give discounts on their best  10
customer. 

答案解析:

1. investing应改为invested。这里说“投资于”普通股中的捐赠金价值损失惨重,既然是投资,就是指人
去投资,即endowments (that were)heavily invested in.括号内的部分是被省略的部分,本句形式上是主动,实际意义上为被动,因此应该把investing改为invested,否则逻辑上和语法上都是说不通的。

2. 在irrespective和fluctuations之间加上介词of。irrespectiveOf是一固定用法,意指“不论,不管,不顾,”等,如:irrespectiveOfthecost不惜工本,irrespective of the consequences不顾后果,irrespective of duty status不论职位高低。此处指公司不顾收入的波动变化。

3. 把those改为that。本句的后半部分主要强调的是大学里的“看法或观点”(outlook)与企业公司的看法或观点不一样,即着眼点在于对两种不同团体看法的对比。既然前面用的是单数形式,后面也应用单数形式,基本语法规则是前后应一致,本句为代词those的误用,所以应把those改为that。

4.在fact和economic之间力口上关系代词that。这是一个同位语从语,that在同位语从句中是不能省略的,否则就很可能出现意思所指不清的麻烦,所以此处必须加上关系代词that。

5.把定冠词the去掉。定冠词与一名词连用,表示某个或某些特定的人或物或机构等,而此处的in the school,一则意思不清,二则可能指在某人正在某个具体学校做某事。这一层意思与本文上下文不相吻合。比较之下,inschool是一固定说法,表示“在上学或求学”、“在校读书”正符合本文上下文的意思。因此应把定冠词去掉。

6.把形容词poor改为其比较级poorer。这句中的poor与后面的more形成一对比较关系,表示“越……越……”,根据这一思路,我们应把形容词poor改为其比较级poorer,以表达一种对称关系。

7.在ways和which之间加上一个介词in。在ways和which之间加上一个介词in,表示intheseways,即指通过前面提到的这些方法。相似的句子较多,如:Not all sounds made by animals serve as language,and we have only to turn to that extra ordinary discovery of echo-location in bats to see a case in which the voice plays a strictly utilitarian role.(动物发出的声音并不是都能当作语言,因此我们只好求助于蝙蝠回声定位的这种非凡的发展,探究一下语音在何种情况下起着绝对有用的作用。)

8.这里应该用动词的—lng形式,即eliminating,以便使句型结构与前面的giving(students a governance role)保持一致,否则句子结构和意思都显得不正确。

9.将shorten(缩短;使变短)改为reduce或weaken。此处属于用词不当。应将shorten(缩短;使变短)改为reduce(使精神垮下来;使身体瘦弱)或weaken(使削弱;使衰减),可表示文中所表示的“减弱竞争的残酷性”。

10.将to give discounts on改为to give discounts to their best customer。意为实业公司给最好的客户提供优惠。而give discount on something则指就某一商品打折扣,显然与本文的上下文是相悖的。因为本文一直在讨论就如何避免为抢最好的生源而展开恶性竞争,为抢好学生捉供优厚奖学金,与公司为抢客源,给最好的客户提供优惠道理是一样的。所以应做上述改动。
 
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